Stress takes a variety of chemical and physical forms and impacts health at every level, from cells and their nuclei and mitochondria to tissues and organs. In the 21st century, humans face an unprecedented combination of environmental, social, metabolic, and oxidative stressors, and immunity may be impaired by the need to address conflicting concerns simultaneously.
Our skin and its innate immune defenses act as a primary barrier for screening out potential health threats such as microbes, antigens, chemicals, and adverse environmental conditions. At a deeper level, the walls of cells and of mitochondria act as skin-like protectors for these vital structures. This is where astaxanthin displays its ingenuity as a uniquely qualified bodyguard, having optimal physical dimensions and chemical attributes for reinforcing cellular structures.
In this article, researchers note that astaxanthin has demonstrated considerable efficacy in countering immune and oxidative challenges. In marine life, astaxanthin ameliorates stress tolerance, protection from ultraviolet (UV) light, reproduction, and immune function, and studies have elucidated by which astaxanthin benefits the stress and immune responses.