Pro-Resolving Mediators Can Shift Immune Balance in Fat Tissue

Pro-Resolving Mediators Can Shift Immune Balance in Fat Tissue

In adults, white adipose is the predominant fat tissue. It is structurally and functionally distinct from brown fat, which contains many mitochondria that can generate heat from stored lipids. White fat differs from brown in other crucial ways, as well. Unlike brown adipocytes, white fat cells are able to expand almost 1000-fold in volume, and white fat is a significant endocrine organ throughout life, secreting a broad range of adipokines (hormones and other signaling factors) that exert considerable influence over whole-body immune balance and inflammatory tone.

Individuals with heightened body adiposity often show low-level yet persistent inflammation, and consequently have greater risk for cardiovascular disorders, fatty liver disease, and other immunometabolic conditions. The expansion of lipid storage depots appears to instigate multiple changes in the body’s overall energy dynamics, and is frequently accompanied by insulin resistance, dysglycemia, and dyslipidemia. This can then modify immune pattern recognition and trigger a chronic immune response, altering blood levels of many cytokines and chemokines. Ultimately, fat tissues may become infiltrated with M1 macrophages that perpetuate the inflammatory response. This review cites research detailing how metabolic remodeling occurs in obesity, and describes mechanisms by which PRM administration can modulate immune signaling and ameliorate overall immune balance.

Pro-Resolving Mediators Can Shift Immune Balance in Fat Tissue

NUTRITION CONCLUSION


In addition to their many other immune roles, pro-resolving mediators (PRMs) interact with adipose tissues intensively, and can alter their potentially proinflammatory messaging. There is increasing evidence that tissue insufficiency of PRMs may contribute to the metabolic consequences often seen in individuals with heightened body adiposity.

Back to blog