Protectin D1n-3 DPA and resolvin D5n-3 DPA are effectors of intestinal protection

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 2017

Thomas Gobbetti, Jesmond Dalli, Romain A. Colas, Donata Federici Canova, Marius Aursnes, Delphine Bonnet, Laurent Alric, Nathalie Vergnolle, Celine Deraison, Trond V. Hansen, Charles N. Serhan, and Mauro Perretti Abstract: The resolution of inflammation is an active process orchestrated by specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM) that limit the host response within the affected tissue; failure of effective resolution may lead to tissue injury. Because persistence of inflammatory signals is a main feature of chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), herein we investigate expression and functions of SPM in intestinal inflammation. Targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics was used to identify SPMs from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human IBD colon biopsies, quantifying a significant up-regulation of the resolvin and protectin pathway compared with normal gut tissue. Systemic treatment with protectin (PD)1n-3 DPA or resolvin (Rv)D5n-3 DPA protected against colitis and intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation in mice. Inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase activity reduced PD1n-3 DPA and augmented intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis. Intravital microscopy of mouse mesenteric venules demonstrated that PD1n-3 DPA and RvD5n-3 DPA decreased the extent of leukocyte adhesion and emigration following ischemia-reperfusion. These data were translated by assessing human neutrophil–endothelial interactions under flow: PD1n-3 DPA and RvD5n-3 DPA reduced cell adhesion onto TNF-α–activated human endothelial monolayers. In conclusion, we propose that innovative therapies based on n-3 DPA-derived mediators could be developed to enable antiinflammatory and tissue protective effects in inflammatory pathologies of the gut.

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KEY TAKEAWAY: "We propose that n-3 DPA-derived mediators could represent the basis for innovative therapeutic strategies in settings of intestinal inflammation."
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